A/ Giới thiệu
Hãy đọc câu chuyện có thật sau đây về một du khách người Mỹ ở Anh.
A man from California was spending a month in Britain. One day he booked into a hotel in Cheltenham, a nice old town in the West of England. Then he went out to look around the place. But the man didn’t return to the hotel. He disappeared, leaving a suitcase full of clothes behind. The police were called in, but they were unable to find out what had happened to the missing tourist. It was a mystery.
But two weeks later the man walked into the police station in Cheltenham. He explained that he was very sorry, but while walking around the town, he had got lost. He had also forgotten the name of the hotel he had booked into. So he had decided to continue with his tour of the country and had gone to visit a friend in Scotland before returning to pick up the case he had left behind.
|A/ an chỉ đi với một số danh từ số ít. Với danh từ số nhiều hoặc danh từ không đếm được, chúng ta sẽ dùng some.||The đi với cả danh từ số ít lẫn danh từ số nhiều và danh từ không đếm được.|
|He left a case, (số ít)
He left some cases, (số nhiều)
He left some luggage, (không đếm được)
|He needed the case, (số ít)
He needed the cases, (số nhiều)
He needed the luggage, (không đếm được)
B/ Cách dùng
Khi câu chuyện đề cập lần đầu đến điều gì đó, danh từ sẽ có chữ a hoặc an.
A man booked into a hotel in Cheltenham.
Những cụm từ này là thông tin mới. Chúng ta không biết người đàn ông nào hay khách sạn nào. Nhưng khi điều tương tự được đề cập lại, danh từ phải có chữ the.
The man didn’t return to the hotel.
Những cụm từ này là thông tin cũ. Bây giờ chúng ta đã biết người đàn ông nào và khách sạn nào – đó là những thứ đã được đề cập trước trong câu chuyện. Chúng ta dùng the khi biết rõ điều mà chúng ta ám chỉ.
|Would you like to see a show?
(I don’t say which show)
|Would you like to see the show?
(= the show we already mentioned)
|The cyclist was hit by a car.
(I don’t say which car)
|Whose is the car outside?
(= ‘Outside’ explains which car I mean.)
|In the office a phone was ringing.
(The office has lots of phones.)
|I was in bed when the phone rang.
(= the phone in my house.)
|Has Melanie got a garden?
(We do not know if there is one)
|She was at home in the garden.
(We know she has one).
|The train stopped at a station.
(We don’t know which station.)
|Turn left here for the station.
(= the station in this town)
|We took a taxi.||We went in the car.
(= my / our car)
|We could hear a noise.||We could hear the noise of a party.|
|I wrote the number on an envelope.||I wrote it on the back of an envelope.|
C/ A man / he và the man / someone
Chúng ta dùng a /an + danh từ hoặc someone / something khi chúng ta không nói rõ cái nào.
A man / Someone booked into a hotel.
He left a case / something behind.
Chúng ta dùng the + danh từ hoặc he / she / it khi chúng ta biết rõ cái nào.
The man / He didn’t return to the hotel.
The case / It contained clothes.
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I) Hoàn thành câu chuyện có thật sau. Sử dụng a / an hoặc the.
A man decided to rob (1) …… bank in the town where he lived. He walked into (2) …… bank and handed (3) ….. note to one of (4) ……. cashiers. (5) …… cashier read (6) …… note, which told her to give (7) ……. man some money. Afraid that he might have (8) …. gun, she did as she was told. (9) ……. man then walked out of (10) ….. building, leaving (11) …… note behind. However, he had no time to spend (12) ……. money because he was arrested (13) …… same day. He had made (14) …… mistake. He had written (15) …… note on (16) …… back of (17) ……. envelope. And on (18) …… other side of (19) ……. envelope was his name and address. This clue was quite enough for (20) ……. detectives on the case.
II) Thay thế câu có chứa từ in nghiêng. Sử dụng a / an hoặc the với từ trong ngoặc.
We didn’t have much time for lunch. David made something for us. (omelette).
David made an omelette for us.
1) They ran the race before they held the long jump. Matthew won it easily. (race)
2) The driver turned left. Suddenly someone ran into the road. (child)
3) Vicky was lying on the sofa. She was watching something on television. (film)
4) I had to take a train and then a bus. It was half an hour late. (bus)
5) A shoplifter tried to steal some clothes. The camera videoed her. (thief)
III) Hoàn thành các đoạn hội thoại sau. Sử dụng a / an hoặc the.
|1||Mike:||I’m going out for ….. walk. Have you seen my shoes?|
|Harriet:||Yes, they’re on ….. floor in …… kitchen.|
|2||Melanie:||Would you like …… tomato? There’s one in ….. fridge.|
|David:||Oh, yes, please. I’ll make myself ……. cheese and tomato sandwich.|
|3.||Sarah:||If you’re going into …… city centre, can you post these letters for me?|
|Mark:||Yes, I’ll take them to …. main post office.|
|4.||Rita:||I’ve got …… problem with my phone bill. Can I see someone about it?|
|Receptionist:||Yes, go to …… fifth floor ……. lift is along the corridor.|
|5.||Tom:||I didn’t know Melanie had ……. dog.|
|David:||It isn’t hers. She’s just taking it for a walk while …….. owner is away.|
|6.||Vicky:||I’ve got ……. headache. I’ve had it all day.|
|Rachel:||Why don’t you go to ….. health centre? It’s open until six.|
|7.||Andrew:||Guess what. I found ……. £50 note on the pavement this morning.|
|Jessica:||You really ought to take it to ….. police station, you know.|
[nextpage title=”Đáp án”]
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1/ Matthew won the race easily
2/ Suddenly a child ran into the road.
3/ She was watching a film on television.
4/ The bus was half an hour late.
5/ The camera videoed the thief.
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