Hãy cùng dayhoctienganh.net điểm lại cách dùng và một số lưu ý về thì quá khứ hoàn thành (the past perfect). Ôn tập và làm bài tập về thì quá khứ hoàn thành.
A/ Giới thiệu
I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of a shock. I suddenly realizaed that I’d left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.
Tình huống này xảy ra trong quá khứ (I took the train … I felt tired…). Khi chúng ta nói về những sự việc trước thời điểm quá khứ này, chúng ta sử dụng quá khứ hoàn thành.
Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. (Buổi tối hôm kia Sarah và tôi đã đến dự một buổi tiệc).
I’d left my wallet at home. (Tôi đã để quên ví ở nhà).
Chúng ta đang nhìn lại những hành động trước đó từ tình huống của một chuyến đi tàu – đi dự một buổi tiệc và rời khỏi nhà mà không có cái ví.
Sau đây là một số ví dụ khác về quá khứ hoàn thành.
It was twenty to six. Most of the shops had just closed.
I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold all the tickets.
By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.
Ngoài các hành động chúng ta có thể dùng quá khứ hoàn thành để nói về các trạng thái.
I felt better by the summer, but the doctor warned me not to do too much. I’d been very ill. The news came as no surprise to me. I’d known for some time that the factory was likely to close.
B/ Hình thức
Quá khứ hoàn thành là had + quá khứ phân từ.
He had enjoyed the party, OR He’d enjoyed the party.
They hadn’t gone to bed until late
Where had he put his wallet?
C/ Hiện tại hoàn thành và quá khứ hoàn thành
Hãy so sánh những ví dụ sau đây:
|Hiện tại hoàn thành (trước thời điểm hiện tại)||Quá khứ hoàn thành (trước thời điểm đó)|
|My wallet isn’t here. I’ve left it behind.||My wallet wasn’t there. I’d left it behind.|
|The match is over. United have won.||The match was over. United had won.|
|That man looks familiar. I’ve seen him somewhere before.||The man looked familiar. I’d seen him somewhere before.|
[nextpage title=”Bài tập”]Bài tập
I) Hãy đọc từng tình huống sau đây và chọn câu trả lời đúng:
Two men delivered the sofa. I had already paid for it.
Which came first, a) the delivery b) the payment?
1) The waiter brought our drinks. We’d already had our soup.
Which came first, a) the drinks b) the soup
2) I’d seen the film, so I read the book.
Did I first a) see the film b) read the book?
3) The programme had ended, so I rewound the cassette.
Did I rewind the cassette a) after b) before the programme ended?
4) I had an invitation to the party, but I’d arranged a trip to London.
Which came first a) the invitation b) the arrangements for the trip?
II) Thêm một câu có quá khứ hoàn thành bằng cách dùng các gợi ý trong ngoặc.
Claire looked very suntanned when I saw her last week.
She’d just been on holiday (just / be on holiday).
1) We rushed to the station, but we were too late.
…………………………….. (the train / just / go).
2) I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter.
………………………………….. (the rain / stop).
3) When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in.
……………………………….. (forget / my ticket).
4) Someone got the number of the car the raiders used.
…………………………………… (steal / it / a week before).
5) I was really please to see Rachel again yesterday.
……………………………………. (not see/ her / for ages).
6) Luckily the flat didn’t look to bad when my parents called in.
…………………………………….. (just / clean / it).
7) The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation.
………………………………. (already / eat / my sandwiches).
III) Chia các động từ trong ngoặc ở hiện tại hoàn thành (have done) hoặc quá khứ hoàn thành (had done).
It isn’t rainning now. It’s stopped (stop) at last.
We had no car at that time. We’d sold (sell) our old one.
1) The park looked awful. People …. (leave) litter everywhere.
2) You can have that newspaper. I …. (finish) with it.
3) There’s no more cheese. We …. (eat) it fall, I’m afraid.
4) There was no sign of a taxi, although I …. (order) one half an hour before.
5) This bill isn’t right. They ….. (make) a mistake.
6) I spoke to Melanie at lunch-time. Someone …. (tell) her the news earlier.
7) I was really tired last night. I …. (have) a hard day.
8) Don’t you want to see this programme? It …. (start).
9) It’ll soon get warm in here. I …. (turn) the heating on.
10) At last the committee were ready to announce their decision. They ….. (made) up their minds.
[nextpage title=”Đáp án”]Đáp án
|1) b||2) a||3) a||4) b|
1) The train had just gone.
2) The rain had stopped.
3) I had forgotten my ticket.
4) They had stolent it a week before.
5) I hadn’t seen her for ages.
6) I had just cleaned it.
7) I had already eaten my sandwiches.
|1) had left||2) have finished||3) have eaten|
|4) had orderd||5) have made||6) had told|
|7) had had||8) has started||9) have turned|
10) had made